Understanding English grammar concepts is an essential requirement for cracking IBPS PO / Clerk and SBI Exams. A significant number of sentence error and sentence improvement questions are there in banking exams which can be cracked only by mastering these concepts.
Verbals are one among the many important concepts in English grammar. Knowing what verbals are and their application is going to be quite helpful when you attempt the English language section of any competitive exam. Keeping this in mind, the Institute for Top Bank Exam Coaching in Delhi has provided a detailed account of verbals and all that which you must know regarding them.
What are Verbals?
All of us understand that verbs are action words. Verbals are derived from verbs. But, they are used as different parts of speech. Verbals can have three forms:
- Gerund (ing)
- Infinitive (to)
- Participles: (the Present participle form & Past participle form)
(I) Gerund (V1 + ing)
The gerund verbal ends in ‘ing’ and acts like a naming word in a sentence. It is very easy to spot a gerund in a sentence because of the ‘ing’ present at the end. Though it is formed from a verb, yet it functions as a noun (naming word) and not a verb.
- Singing is one of his best talents. (Here ‘singing’ is a gerund and acts as a noun in the sentence.)
- She likes playing basketball on Saturday evenings. (Here ‘playing’ is a gerund and acts as a noun in the sentence.)
- I heard somebody murmuring in the room. (Here ‘murmuring’ is a gerund and acts as a noun.)
- My sister does not approve of smoking and drinking. (Here ‘smoking’ and ‘drinking’ are gerunds acting as nouns.)
- Reading and writing are essential skills that should be mastered at the school level. (Here ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ are gerunds acting as nouns.)
- Swimming is the best full body exercise for kids. (Here ‘swimming’ is a gerund and acts as a noun.)
(II) Infinitive (To + V1)
The infinitive verbal is the base form of any verb with ‘to’ coming immediately before it. Normally the infinitive functions as a noun in a sentence, but it can also act as an adjective or an adverb.
- To play cricket for his school team is John’s immediate goal. (Here ‘to play’, the infinitive, is used as a noun and acts as the subject of the sentence.)
- Jane’s favorite pastime is to watch Hollywood films. (Here ‘to watch’, the infinitive, is used as a noun and acts as the subject complement.)
- A reporter intends to write the biography of our country’s football legend. (Here ‘to write’, the infinitive, is used as the object of the verb ‘intend’.)
- The police officer was ready to shoot. (Here ‘to shoot’, the infinitive, functions as an adverb, and modifies the adjective ‘ready’.)
- These are the games to play. (Here ‘to play’, the infinitive, functions as an adjective, and modifies the noun ‘games’.)
- We must exercise regularly to keep our bodies in shape. (Here ‘to keep’, the infinitive, is used in order to express purpose.)
To infinitive is also known as the ‘full infinitive’. However, there is a bare infinitive as well. The infinitive where ‘to’ is not there is called bare infinitive (‘do’, ‘be’).
Examples (Bare Infinitive):
- It is used as the main verb after the auxiliary verb do, or most modal auxiliaries (such as will, could, or should etc.)
- You do love her.
- She did like him.
- They will stop it.
- Many verbs of perception such as: see, sense, hear, watch, feel etc. take a direct object & a bare infinitive.
- She saw it happen.
- You watched him leave.
- I felt it move.
- It is also used with several verbs of permission or causation such as: make, let, bid, & have.
- She made / bade / let / had me do it.
Note: But, ‘make’ takes ‘to-infinitive’ form in passive voice. He was made to do so.
The participle is a verbal which is used as an adjective. It most often ends in –ed, -en or -ing. Since it functions as an adjective, it modifies nouns or pronouns. The participles are of 2 types:
- Present Participle – Like gerunds, the present participle ends in ‘ing’. However, you must know the difference between a gerund and a present participle. A gerund functions as a noun, whereas a present participle works as an adjective. You must note that a present participle (like crying or walking) discusses a present condition.
- Past Participle – It discusses something that has happened and generally ends in -ed, -en, -d, etc. Examples are: baked, eaten, broken, dealt, interested and gone.
- Alice likes baked potatoes more than anything else. (Here ‘baked’, the past participle, modifies the noun potatoes.)
- Young parents often find it difficult to deal with crying babies. (Here ‘crying’, the present participle, modifies the noun babies.)
- Youngsters interested in having a lot of fun often find it difficult to concentrate on their IBPS Clerk Exam Preparation. (Here ‘interested’, the past participle, modifies the noun youngsters.)
- A burning log of wood fell off the fire and injured the woman. (Here ‘burning’, the present participle, modifies the noun log.)
- Everybody likes interacting with smiling faces. (Here ‘smiling’, the present participle, modifies the noun faces.)
Having understood concepts related to verbals, you must now focus on some more practice. The material made available by the Centre for the Best IBPS PO Coaching in Delhi is ideal for such practice. However, it is suggested that you attempt adequate number of model test papers and previous year exam papers. This will ensure that you have exposure to questions of all types. Moreover, it will give you tremendous confidence on the day you attempt the exam.
This article has discussed some important grammatical concepts related to verbals. The article specifically focuses on entrance exams conducted for Banking, SSC & other Govt. jobs. It has been written by faculty from Vidya Guru Institute that has guided thousands of students towards success in multiple competitive exams. Now, you can even learn from these faculty members by subscribing to the Institute’s vibrant Youtube channel. Happy learning!!